Paul received his Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Kansas, while specializing in the field of microbial geochemistry. His Ph.D. research focused on the role of microorganisms in changed and interacted physically with their environment and how these interactions affected the dissolution and precipitation of carbonate minerals. Most notably Paul’s research elucidated an abiotic mechanism to overcome thermodynamic barriers in the formation of low-temperature dolomite. He has experience with the identification and characterization of micron-scale carbonate minerals, using advanced micro-imaging techniques including powdered X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental mapping and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a postdoctoral scientist, Paul uses novel bench top experiments to identify thermodynamic barriers to carbonate precipitation and how this can affect the long-term stability of carbonate minerals.